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Clinical and Radiographic diagnosis of whiplash

The diagnosis of whiplash remains clinical. The mechanism of injury must be elicited. The clinical syndrome of whiplash and WAD includes :

• Neck pain with the presence of decreased active range of neck movement and local mechanical hyperalgesia within the cervical spine
• Changes in motor function with kinaesthetic disturbances
• Disturbances in kinaesthetic awareness, balance and eye movement control
• Arm pain and paresthesias with numbness and tingling
• Temporomandibular dysfunction
• Headache
• Visual disturbances-blurred vision
• Difficulty swallowing
• Memory and concentration problems
• Psychological distress.